Climate Change” and “Global Warming” are often used interchangeably but have distinct meanings.
Climate Change is a long term change in the average weather patterns that define Earth’s local, regional and global climates.
The changes in climate observed since the mid 20th century. Its happening due to human activities, that results in raising earth’s average surface temperature. Human Activities vary from deforestation to generating electricity through fossil fuels, manufacturing goods, using transportation, cutting down forests, producing food by using fertilizers. Impacts of climate change on different sectors are interrelated.

Burning fossil fuels generates greenhouse gas emissions that act like a blanket wrapped around the Earth, trapping the sun’s heat and raising temperatures. This greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise that results in earth’s temperature. The Earth’s temperature is 1.1 degree centigrade warmer than in the 1800s. Rise in temperature is just the beginning of the Earth system. This is connected and changes in one area can influence changes in other areas too.

As greenhouse gas emissions blanket the Earth, they trap the sun’s heat. This leads to global warming and climate change. The world is now warming faster than at any point in recorded history. Warmer temperatures over time are changing weather patterns and disrupting the usual balance of nature. This poses many risks to human beings and all other forms of life on Earth.

Causes of Global Warming:
Generating electricity and heat by burning fossil fuels causes a large chunk of global emissions. Most electricity is still generated by burning coal, oil, or gas, which produces carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. These are powerful greenhouse gases that blanket the Earth and trap the sun’s heat.
Manufacturing and industry produce emissions, mostly from burning fossil fuels to produce energy for making things. Things like cement, iron, steel, electronics, plastics, clothes, and other goods. Mining and other industrial processes also release gases, as does the construction industry. The manufacturing industry is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.
Cutting down forests to create farms or pastures, or for other reasons, causes emissions. Its because when trees are cut, release the carbon they have been storing. Each year approximately 12 million hectares of forest are destroyed. Since forests absorb carbon dioxide, destroying them also limits nature’s ability to keep emissions out of the atmosphere.
Most cars, trucks, ships, and planes run on fossil fuels. That makes transportation a major contributor of greenhouse gases, especially carbon-dioxide emissions.
Globally, residential and commercial buildings consume over half of all electricity. As they continue to draw on coal, oil, and natural gas for heating and cooling. It results in emission of significant quantities of greenhouse gas.

Effects of Climate Change:
As greenhouse gas concentrations rise, so does the global surface temperature. Nearly all land areas are seeing more hot days and heat waves. Higher temperatures increase heat-related illnesses and make working outdoors more difficult. Wildfires start more easily and spread more rapidly when conditions are hotter. Temperatures in the Arctic have warmed at least twice as fast as the global average.

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